Frustrated that Students Don't Know The Multiplication Facts?

Have you've encountered the student who doesn't study the multiplication facts? Or the student who learns one multiplication table and then seemingly forgets most of the facts? Or the student who studies but has a hard time recalling the facts?


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I'm sure you have!  Multiplication is introduced in second grade as counting groups by a certain number (2, 5 and 10).  It is not until third grade that most students are formally introduced to the concept of multiplication through equal groups, arrays, area model, etc.  And for the most part, most students "get" multiplication as a concept.

But there eventually comes a time when the math will get more complicated (and maybe harder).  So as a mathematician, you want to be more efficient.  Learning by memory all the multiplication facts will make you a more efficient mathematician when the math does get more complicated.


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So now we are back to the students and memorizing the multiplication tables.  There are lots of tips and tricks and strategies for memorizing the multiplication facts.  I've even developed resources for my students that give them tips and strategies for remembering the tables.

But the problem with memory is that it needs to be recalled easily if it is to be useful.  So beyond teaching memorization tips and strategies for the multiplication tables, what else can we do so that students learn those facts to be more efficient if they can NOT recall from memory?


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Teach them strategies for fluency!  Let me show you some mental math strategies that you can teach your students to use with memory is not enough!  But first, what exactly is "fluency?"

WHAT IS MULTIPLICATION FLUENCY?


The Common core DOES specify that memorization of the multiplication tables is an expectation.  But that does not mean that meaningless memorization is the route to go.  We want students to understand multiplication conceptually as well as recalling facts.  In the Common Core, there are various terms used:  know from memory, be fluent in, demonstrate fluency, etc.  It even states that "by the end of Grade 3, know from memory all the products of two one-digit numbers."

Now, let us clear up some terms.  To know from memory means to recall from memory a fact.  It is remembering.


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Fluency is more complicated. Fluency is NOT the instant spouting of memorized facts.  Fluency is the combination of recalling from memory OR using patterns and strategies when memory is not enough which then leads the student to use mental math strategies for multiplication.


WHAT STRATEGIES SHOULD I TEACH THEN FOR FLUENCY?


The mental math strategies used to teach multiplication fluency can be grouped into two categories:  Foundational Strategies and Derivative Strategies.

The Foundation Strategies are the first strategies to teach and use the reliable mental math strategies of counting by a number (also known as skip counting), knowing the square numbers, and knowing the Zero and Identity Properties of Multiplication.

The Derivative Strategies build on the Foundation Strategies and teach halving and doubling, adding or subtracting a group, using a nearby square, the patterns for the nines multiplication table, and the Commutative and Distributive Properties of Multiplication.


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The strategies are similar in use to the addition strategies you would teach students learning to add: decomposing a number, doubles, doubles plus one, adding one more, etc.  They are mental math strategies that are explicitly taught and practiced with pencil and paper first before becoming part of the mental math repertoire for adding.  The same applies to these multiplication strategies.  They are explicitly taught and practiced with pencil and paper until the student can use the strategy in mental math.


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In Part 2 of this 3 part blog series, come back to learn more about how to teach the Foundation Strategies.

In the meantime, check out the latest resource in my Teachers Pay Teachers store!  Made explicitly for teaching multiplication fluency strategies!

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Overwhelmed? Self Care is Important and Vital to Success!

I recently had the opportunity to chat with Rachel Davis of Elite Edupreneurs on her podcast featuring Teachers Pay Teachers sellers.  We discussed many topics about being a seller on Teachers Pay Teachers.  One important aspect of being a seller is knowing when to take care of yourself.



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When you're a TpT seller, there is a lot of stress involved.  A seller has to know how to create high-quality resources, learn marketing techniques, learn copyright and trademarks, and run a business while trying to balance all that with the rest of your life.

As a single dad of two boys (13 and 10), it's not always easy to balance raising children, working full time as an elementary teacher and running a store on Teachers Pay Teachers.  But I try.  Join Rachel and me on the podcast now! (It's free! Just click on the link).

LISTEN TO THE PODCAST NOW!

5 Must Have Presents That Will Make a Teacher Happy!

It's that time of year again when you know your students are wondering what gift to get you this year.  I've been teaching for 31 years, and I've received plenty of beautiful gifts that have been given with gratitude, from the heart and from an interesting point of view of what a teacher might like.  Yes, that means I've gotten some very "interesting" presents over the years. But I've appreciated every single one!  Even the one which was a bag of coal! 


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But what gift would REALLY make a teacher happy?  What would a teacher write down on her or his list for Santa?  So I've come up with a list of 5 MUST HAVE presents I know all teachers want.  Maybe we don't ask for these outright, but in the back of our minds, we do wish for these!

MUST HAVE TEACHER PRESENT #1


Respect.  Like Aretha Franklin says...R-E-S...P-E-C-T, that is what a teacher needs!  After 31 years of teaching, I have noticed a dramatic drop in respect for teachers from all parts of society.  From some administrators, from MOST politicians, from parents and from students.  It used to be that a teacher was considered a wise and fair sage.  Now, all that has changed.


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Sometimes we are treated as if we don't know what we are doing (as in politicians telling us how and what to teach).  Sometimes we are treated as if we are devils (as in parents not believing us when we report misbehaviors by their children).  Sometimes we are treated as a bothersome itch (as in students who keep on talking while we try to teach or ignore our teaching altogether).

Of course, there are many wonderful parents, students, and administrators who do go out of their way and treat us respectfully.  But what we really want is that respect from everyone.

To the politicians out there:  we know what we're doing!  Let us teach!  We have the teaching degree, you do not.  To the parents who never believe us when we discuss their child's behavior:  you're doing your child more damage than you can imagine!  To the students who seem to think we're interrupting their day with our teaching:  I will still try my hardest to teach you, but remember that you reap what you sow!

MUST HAVE TEACHER PRESENT #2


Less stress.   You would think after 31 years of teaching, stress would not be an issue.  But it is.  Yes, I have stress in all parts of my life, but in the past 10 years teaching has become even more stressful with mandates by politicians, demands by parents and the ever-increasing needs of needier students.


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Most people think that teachers just sit at a desk all day and tell students what to do.  Nope.  I don't even have a regular desk.  I'm always moving around.  I'm teaching.  I'm working with a group of students.  I'm working with one student.  The point being?  I'm working here!  And planning for all those lessons, keeping up with the grading, and the myriad other teaching-related duties a teacher has, the stress can be demanding.


MUST HAVE TEACHER PRESENT #3


A simple thank you.  As teachers, we get a silent thank you every time a student learns to do something new or improves.  Every time a student lights up with that proverbial light bulb is a thank you.  But, I'd like to think that I have one of the most essential jobs in the world which is shaping the future! So I believe society should be a more thankful we teachers are so dedicated!

Wouldn't it be nice if teachers were given ticker-tape parades as a thank you?  Wouldn't it be nice if teachers were given a Nobel Prize as a thank you?  Wouldn't it be nice if teachers were rewarded with multi-million dollar contracts?  Shouldn't teachers also get signing bonuses?


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The point being is that teachers need to be thanked more often and in more ways for all we do.  I can't say all 100% of teachers will go above and beyond their duties, but probably 99.99999999% will.  Which other professions can say that!

MUST HAVE TEACHER PRESENT #4


Better pay!  You've heard this one before.  If you want to keep attracting the best and brightest to the teaching profession, you have to draw them with a good salary, good benefits, and good working conditions.   Many teachers now begin their careers saddled with student debt.  No one is going to want to be a teacher if they realize that on a teacher's salary, they'd still have to live at home with their parents because they would not be able to afford to do so on their own.





For those of us who are veteran teachers, we have gone years without pay raises while the cost of living has continued to go up.  I can tell you (and prove to you with receipts) that I spend about $1,000 - $2,000 per year of my own salary on supplemental materials, school supplies and other resources for my class.  So over the 31 years of teaching, I probably have spent close to a starting teacher's salary!  We're not asking to double our pay.  We're asking to be paid a decent wage to support our families!


MUST HAVE TEACHER PRESENT #5


A coffee mug!  In my 31 years of teaching, I have gotten a coffee mug EVERY SINGLE YEAR.  I've said that when I retire, I will open a coffee shop featuring all these mugs.  So keep them coming!


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What has been your favorite present from a student?  

If you could choose one present as a teacher, what would it be?

Let me know in the comments below!

Happy Holidays!



Teachers Pay Teachers Cyber Sale 2017

Starting Monday, November 27, 2017, shop the Teachers Pay Teachers Cyber Sale.  This is your best chance at getting the most savings!  Use the Promo Code CYBER17 to save up to 25%!!





Save even more by purchasing bundles!  Bundles are usually discounted 20 - 30% off full prices. Now save even more with a 20% off sale and then use the PROMO CODE. Do the math and you will SAVE BIG!!!

There's another way to save.  Leave feedback on all your TpT purchases and receive TpT credit for future purchases!

Finally, start your wish list now so check out is smooth and effortless.  Browse early, find amazing resources and put them on your wishlist.   Then, when it's time to check out, just move the item to your cart and you're ready to go! Don't forget to add the PROMO CODE CYBER17 and your TpT credits.

Check out a new type of resource:  Teaching Kits or Teaching and Learning Bundles.  These new resources contain multiple resources in one!  No need to search endlessly for different items to teach.  The kits can include:  Powerpoints, Games, Centers, Printables, Google Slides®, Posters and more!



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Happy Cyber Shopping!

Check out my store and start your wishlist!

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Sale runs November 27 and 28, 2017.

3 Tried and True Ways on How to Teach Multiplication

The gateway to learning algebra and higher forms of mathematics is multiplication.  It is critically important that elementary school children learn the concept of multiplication as well as, just learning the multiplication facts.  I am a big believer in using manipulatives and concrete objects to teach concepts to elementary school children. When introducing the concept of multiplication or when my students are practicing with the idea, we use manipulatives such as the foam tiles that are included in the math program.  You can use anything:  beans, counters, buttons, etc. 


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But it is also essential to use the manipulatives with strategies that can transfer to paper and pencil models as well.  Though there are many ways to teach the concept of multiplication, I have always emphasized equal groups, arrays, and number lines.  Each one has its strengths and difficulties for students to use.

MAKING EQUAL GROUPS


The first strategy is to teach equal groups.  After all, multiplication is the grouping of equal numbers of objects to quickly find a total.  Students must be explicitly taught, and they must practice forming, identifying and counting equal groups.  The student's desktops become whiteboards in my class. Students can be told to get 12 tiles and see what kind of equal groups can be formed (3 groups of 4, 4 groups of 3, 6 groups of 2, 2 groups of 6, 1 group of 12, 12 groups of 1).

Once grouped, students can draw circles around each group and then use skip counting.  Once students are able to form equal groups, I also give them a number that can not be formed into equal groups such as 13.  This is to emphasize the importance of having each group equal.  When groups are not equal, you can not multiply.

Here are some videos that illustrate the concept of equal groups.  They can be assigned to the students to watch individually or watch it as a class.  They are kid-friendly and offer good examples and explanations. If you're using Google Classroom, you can post them as a resource for students to use at home or in the classroom.  If you use EdPuzzle.com, these videos are excellent for prompting the students with questions so that viewing the video is just not a passive experience.







This particular video really emphasizes the ideas of groups, by using real-life examples of "group holders."





USING ARRAYS TO MULTIPLY


Once students have a solid understanding of equal groups, arrays can be introduced.  Arrays are to multiplication what ten frames are also.  Arrays provide a structured way to see groups making it easier to count totals and recognize quantities.  I use the same tiles to create arrays.  I like to start out a lesson on arrays by asking how groups could be arranged in a way to make them easier to count.  Eventually, someone discovers or builds an array.  Then we have a discussion of why arrays are easier to count.  It's also a great idea to show them real-life examples of how ordinary everyday objects are grouped in arrays.

Check out this video!





Arrays are also a useful tool for discovering the Commutative Property of Multiplication.  Just rotate an array 90 degrees, and you have a related fact!  If you have students eventually draw their own arrays, it is a good idea to use graph paper.  Graph paper will help the students keep their arrays from morphing into uncountable blobs!

Here are some more kid-friendly videos to demonstrate the use of arrays.


This particular video is very useful because it also prompts the students with questions making it more interactive.





Which kid doesn't know about MineCraft®!  Keep the motivation going with this MineCraft® themed explanation of arrays.




USING NUMBER LINES TO MULTIPLY


I always use this method last.  Why? Because though it looks straightforward to use, students make many mistakes when using it!  Sometimes students do not count enough spaces to jump or confuse jumps with how many to jump at once.  In either case, it requires careful teaching and making sure the students understand the steps involved in using a number line to multiply.  I've also thought about using an open number line to multiply as this may lead to less confusion counting the tick marks to jump.  An open number line requires the student to SKIP count by a certain number for each jump.  A marked number line requires a student to count the same amount of ticks each time.

I have number lines that are laminated, and the students put them on a marker board to use. Number lines do not lend themselves very well when using manipulatives.  But by this time, most understand the concept of equal groups.

Here are some videos that can be used for a review or for teaching how to use the number line to multiply.

This first one also points out to students common mistakes when using the number line!






Here's an example of using an open number line.




POWERPOINT RESOURCE WITH PRINTABLES!


Once I have established the concept of using each of these strategies using manipulatives or, I want my students to start connecting multiplication expressions to go with equal groups, arrays, and number lines, I use a PowerPoint I created that explicitly explains how to write multiplication equations.  It's a three-part PowerPoint that teaches equal groups, arrays and number lines to multiply.  It comes with printables that are used along with the PowerPoint.


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The printables help connect the manipulatives to writing multiplication expressions. The PowerPoint is animated and has sound to keep the students engaged.  Many questions are embedded into each slide to keep the students thinking about what is happening.  Presenter's Notes for the teacher also guide the teacher through the PowerPoint lessons and provide questions for stimulating mathematical thinking.


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Take a look at the full PREVIEW HERE.

Click below to see all my 
multiplication resources!


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How to Use the Compensation Strategy for Addition

What are some of the strategies you teach your students or children to add two and three digit numbers?  Do you use compensation?  Or do you begin teaching with the standard algorithm?  Teaching students to be flexible in their strategies makes them more likely to persevere and find a solution.  One of the many strategies I have been teaching my students to use is making a ten.  The next step is teaching compensation which utilizes a number close to a ten (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, etc.).  

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Compensation is defined as adjusting one number when adding.  See the example below:


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COMPENSATION OR TRANSFORMATION?



But hold on!  In some math textbook series, this is referred to as transformation!  So what is the difference?  In my research, the difference between compensation and transformation is that in compensation only one number at a time is adjusted, while in transformation, both numbers are adjusted simultaneously.  Though it seems like semantics, it does make a difference when teaching this strategy to second graders!



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In my district, we happen to use the Go Math textbook. Though we are encouraged to NOT use it as intended but to focus on the standards, number talks, math talk and teaching students strategies I still use it for practice (students have consumables).  In Go Math, this process of adjusting numbers is referred to as compensation.

TEACHING THE STRATEGY


Since I have Math Their Way training, I try to start teaching a concept or a strategy at the concrete level which is defined as using manipulatives only.  Eventually, we move on to the connecting level in which numbers and symbols are now associated with the use of manipulatives, and then we move onto the symbolic level, in which students use paper and pencil.

Before I began teaching the strategy, I made some work mats that were double-sided and would help add some structure to the lesson.

FRONT SIDE


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BACK SIDE



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Download the Compensation Strategy Work Mats here as a PDF!


In the examples below, we started learning compensation by only using manipulatives to represent numbers.  I also used a Number Talk in which I showed number models similar to the ones below and asked the students to find out how many there were.  Students shared various strategies, including counting on, making a ten, grouping tens and ones, etc. 


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I would give the students two numbers that they had to represent on either side of the zigzag line.  For this part, I had the students work together as partners sharing one mat since I was limited in the number of manipulatives I had for this lesson.

The students would physically move the ones over to one side to complete a ten.  Note that we did not trade the new ten for a rod (that comes later when we focus on regrouping).



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SWITCHING TO THE CONNECTING LEVEL



Now that the students had an understanding of the concept of adjusting or compensating numbers, it was time to put manipulatives away and go to drawing models for the number as well as adding numbers and symbols for addition.


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We used the boards to practice this at least 5 times before I could see that the majority could do use this strategy independently.    From there it was time to go to the symbolic level and practice in the math consumable.


Here's a video of one of my students using this strategy independently.








What other strategies do you use for teaching addition with two and three digits?  Please share below in the comments!

If you would like to make your own mats for teaching the compensation strategy, download this PDF!  Just print out on cardstock, laminate, and you're ready to go!




Making 10 is an Important MUST HAVE Mental Math Strategy

Just the other day, I taught a lesson about making a TEN to add sums greater than ten.  For example, with 8 + 6, you could increase the 8 to a 10 and reduce the 6 accordingly by 2 to make a 4.  Thus, 10 + 4 = 14.  Adding with a zero easier to do mentally.  But as I soon discovered, my second graders could NOT mentally make a 10 in their heads.  They did not have automaticity for the addends that made sums of 10.  So I had to stop the lesson and go back and have them practice just making a ten with two addends.





Many, many years ago I taught first grade.  Back then, I had been trained in Math Their Way. By the end of the year, my first graders could make ten mentally and pretty much knew all the math facts to 20!  Math Their Way is a developmentally appropriate curriculum to teach addition and subtraction.  The ability to make ten or to mentally rearrange numbers and internalize the addition facts gave these first graders a tremendous conceptual understanding of addition.  Why don't we have that today?





WHAT'S THE PROBLEM?



Simple answer:  time!  We just do not give students enough time to internalize these strategies, so they use them effortlessly.  The same thing happens in all the grades.  In third grade, we just expect students to memorize the multiplication tables without internalizing strategies that help them learn those facts.  My youngest son is in fourth grade, and the same thing is happening in which the school is using a math textbook and just going page by page.  This results in literally overwhelming the student with strategies to multiply multi-digit numbers without giving the student time to internalize these strategies.





WORKING AT THE SYMBOLIC LEVE FIRST IS A NO-NO!



I have been teaching third grade since the early 2000s and so the last time I taught second grade was before the Common Core Standards were adopted.  I've always wondered why my incoming third graders STILL struggled with basic addition and subtraction facts.  I really didn't have the luxury to slow down because I had to teach multiplication!  So what ends up happening is we send third graders onto fourth grade still having NOT solidified addition and subtraction strategies.

If you look above at the textbook example problem, you will see that this is all done on an abstract level.  Students in second grade still need to operate at the concrete level (manipulatives, realia) before moving to a connecting level (manipulatives and numbers/symbols) and finally working at the symbolic and abstract levels.





When trying to do this lesson, I had the great idea of using a laminated card with a math frame so we could do many of these problems as guided practice.  What I quickly found out, was that my students could NOT come up mentally with an addend that would make a ten.  I assumed that they had had so much practice with ten frames in first grade, that making a ten was second nature.  But it was apparent that it was not!  So I had to backtrack and begin by practicing making a ten.  They just needed more practice in various ways, even if it meant using their fingers.





PRACTICE MAKING TENS



Games are always a great way for kids to practice basic skills.  We practiced making a ten using a die.  I would roll one die, and the students had to hold up the number of fingers to complete the ten (what's the missing addend? is the terminology I used).





Another way was to use the Chromebooks and find online games.  I found 2 particular games that I found fun and accomplished the task of finding corresponding addends that add up to ten.




This online game can be found here:  http://www.mathplayground.com/number_bonds_10.html.





This online game can be found here:  http://gotkidsgames.com/tt/tt.html.





We also added all the combinations of 10 to our Math Journal for reference.  We noted that there were patterns to making a ten.  We also found a double and demonstrated the Commutative Property of Addition.

I found this YouTube video particularly helpful to my students as well!





An anchor chart showing different addition strategies also hangs in our class.  We have not added the Make a Ten strategy yet and won't until the students are more proficient in just making a ten.





The empty space is for the Associative Property of Addition.  We will use this property to make tens.  I still to this day remember one of my math teachers showing us this simple trick.  When adding numbers in a column find the combinations of ten first!  So simple, but powerful.


USING THE CONNECTING LEVEL


If you're familiar with Math Their Way, the connecting level is the level in which students connect conceptual understanding (using manipulatives) to symbols to represent the same.  We used counters to represent each added in an addition sentence such as 7 + 5.  We arranged each as a ten frame (5 across).  Then we moved counters from one number to the other to make a ten.  Then students could see that all we had left to do was add 10 + 2 = 12.






There is one more step I will use to teach this strategy before practicing in the book again.  This video demonstrates it wonderfully.  Instead of using numbers, the teacher draws circles for part of the making a ten strategy.  This is perfect!  The students can visually see what needs to be combined to make a ten and what is left to add.  I've also added a link to this video for parents to watch as well!





Come back soon as I will be blogging about Multiplication Strategies to teach your students so they can attain multiplication fluency!


5 Helpful Multiplication Videos for Your Students

Most teachers report that students struggle with multiplication fluency.  In fact, the problem is pervasive enough that even my son's eighth-grade math teacher said the same thing at his Back To School Night presentation to the parents.  Almost all students eventually understand the concept of multiplication and can use various strategies (arrays, skip counting, repeated addition, etc.) to find a product.  But ultimately, multiplication fluency is needed to move on to higher level math problems and Algebra.





I grew up in the 60s and 70s when we weren't explicitly expected to have memorized our multiplication tables.  I still remember using the multiplication table in my Pee-Chee folder when I was not sure!  But one thing I do remember is Schoolhouse Rock and the multiplication songs... .who cannot forget the haunting melody of figure eight!

So here are 5 multiplication videos to help your students start practicing.  They can rock out to popular tunes, learn some tricks and tips and just have fun.


#1 Mr. De Maio


If you haven't heard about Mr. De Maio, then you're missing out on some very engaging videos!  He has produced videos for all different subject areas, especially for elementary students.  He's created a set of videos for each of the multiplication videos from two to nine.  The videos use today's modern music to have your students singing along and learning those facts!  Here's an example of one of his multiplication videos.




Be sure to subscribe to his channel!

#2 Schoolhouse Rock


If you were a kid growing up in the 70s watching Saturday morning cartoons, you got to watch these classic videos.  These cartoon vignettes taught us some important history (The Shot Heard 'Round the World), some grammar (Conjunction Junction), and multiplication!  I've always used these videos with third graders anytime we have some extra time or as part of a lesson.  The tunes are catchy using all different types of music (classical, country, Do-Wop, Boogie-Woogie, etc.).  Here's an example of one of the classics.






#3  Numberock


Think of Numberock as an updated Schoolhouse Rock with rap style videos.  Numberock videos can be found on YouTube as well as a dedicated site (www.numberock.com).   Numberock also has a store on Teachers Pay Teachers for math lessons for almost all grade levels.  The animation is top notch and the songs original and catchy.  Here's an example of one of the multiplication videos (there are videos for all the multiplication tables).





#4 Multiplication Trick for 9


My own son uses this trick ALL THE TIME when multiplying by 9 so I can vouch for its effectiveness.  Each year I teach it to the third graders.  I just put my hands under the document camera and demonstrate how to use this trick.  But a video is great to have because you can assign it for homework in Google Classroom!  This version is produced by PBS and Full-Time Kid.






#5  Multiplication Made Easy


This is a short video demonstrating some great tips for multiplication.  Using a multiplication chart, the video breaks down multiplication to about 15 facts you must memorize.  The rest can be learned from skip counting or using the Commutative Property of Multiplication.  It's a great video to show parents as well.






Come back often as I will continue to explore this topic of multiplication fluency.  I've been doing research and have found strategies and approaches to get those students to multiplication fluency.


Place Value Doesn't Have to be Boring!


Now that I have a full month of teaching second grade (previously having taught third grade for almost 10 years straight), I'm actually gaining an understanding of how second graders are prepared for third grade.  If you examine the Common Core State Standards for Math, you will see that place value is really NOT taught directly in third grade.  It is left up to first and second-grade teachers to make sure students learn to read and write numbers up to 1,000.  


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A PLACE VALUE GAME


But teaching and learning place value doesn't have to be boring!  One thing I notice about second graders compared to third graders is that attention spans are even shorter.  Another thing is that you have to mix up your teaching game to keep them focused and processing the information.  They also love to play games!


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So I made up this game to solidify the concept of ten 10s equaling one hundred.  First I spent about thirty minutes prepping the materials I would need.  Lots of place value rods and flats!  Luckily, out math program gives each teacher plenty of these to use.  They're also made of foam which eliminates the sound of plastic banging on a desk. First, I put the 10 rods into bundles of ten and put them in snack size plastic bags.  Then, I put all the 100s flats into a basket so they could be handed out.  Finally, just needed one die and my pick sticks (just craft sticks with each students name on a stick).


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To play the game, I handed out to each student between 2 - 5 of the 100s flats.  Some students got 2 hundred flats, some 3 hundred flats, some 4 hundred flats and some got 5 hundred flats.  Then I explained to students that I would roll the die.  If I got a four, I want to trade with someone who has 4 hundred.  But to make it random, I would first pick a name from the pick sticks and ask that person, Do you have 40 tens?(that being the amount I wanted to trade with the student).  If the student said no, I would ask why not?  Then I would continue picking names until I found a student who could make the trade:  40 bundles tens for 4 hundred flats.



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But just to make it more difficult, I said I needed to ask the student to answer a question before trading.  Sneaky me, I also wanted to have the students practice counting by 2s, 5s, and 10s and 100s.  So I might ask the student:  count by 5s starting with 50.  If the student answered correctly, we made a fair trade, and the class received one point.  So it was teacher vs. class for points.  If a student answered incorrectly, the teacher got the point.  Of course, they won!  Adding the random factor (die and pick sticks) kept everyone in the game.  Asking the same type of question Do you have ___ tens? helped reinforc the concept of ten 10s equaling 100.


MATH JOURNAL



Now it was time to transition over to a model.  In my class, we use a composition book as a math journal. However, we call it our Siri Journal.  You know, just like Siri on an iPhone. When you have a math question, ask your Siri math journal!


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In the journal, I had the students make a model for 230.  They drew 23 lines (each line representing 10). Then they grouped the 10s into 100s.  Then we wrote the number in different ways:  23 tens and 2 hundred and 3 tens.  We also did this with 370.

From there it was time for independent practice with the math book.  I'm not a huge fan of our math program, but I did like this particular set of math practice pages!


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SPIRAL REVIEW OF PREVIOUS LEARNING


I've also been embedding some spiral review into our daily routine. We do about two Number Talks a week to learn strategies.  We also just practice counting by 2s, 5s, 10s, and hundreds starting from various numbers.  This ability to manipulate numbers in your head (mental math) is probably the most important skill you can teach a primary student.  One of my sons started school after Common Core began, while the other transitioned to the Common Core Standards.  I can see a big difference in how they each handle math.  The one that started with the Common Core uses many flexible strategies to manipulate numbers, while the other one is still relying just on memorization.


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I also plan spiral review through games and centers.  I have created an entire set of games and centers to use to reinforce the concept of odd and even.  Having taught third grade, it is critical they understand odd and even!  We use the concept of odd and even to find addition and multiplication patterns!

 
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You can find these centers and games in my Teachers Pay Teachers store.  They are part of the Odd and Even Teaching and Learning Bundle.


What strategies do you use to teach place value?  Please share below!


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